Number 3 (June 2009)

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North & South, Volume 11, Number 3 (June 2009)
North & South, Volume 11, Number 3 (June 2009)

80 Pages


Irregular Warfare 1861-1865…..16

What was it considered legitimate, in the 1860s, for occupiers and the occupied to do?  And how important was guerrilla warfare to the outcome of the conflict.

Panel Discussion: Michael Bradley, John Inscoe, James Jones, Thomas Mays, Steve Newton, Keith Poulter, Daniel Sutherland

A panel of respected scholars discusses irregular warfare.  Topics include the disparate codes each side was working under, a U.S military code from 1806 for the South and the Lieber Code for the North, the success, or lack thereof on both sides when using “counter-insurgency” techniques, the lack of coverage of guerrilla warfare in the Civil War, and the importance of irregular warfare to the final result of the war.

Lincoln, The Navy, and the Fort Sumter Crisis…..34

by Craig Symonds

Lincoln, the navy, and Fort Sumter.

Craig Symonds’ article is adapted from a chapter of his new book, Lincoln and His Admirals.  As the article title indicates, the subject is Lincoln’s handling of the Fort Sumter crisis and the naval forces sent to reinforce and supply the fort.  Lincoln had to contend with dueling secretaries, Seward and Welles, in his Cabinet, a feeling of secession in the OSuth which was overwhelming, and the difficult decision of whether or not to reinforce or evacuate Ft. Sumner and Ft. Pickens.  Lincoln made some mistakes, to be sure, according to Symonds, but he also did a lot of positive things, including seeking advice from those who were the most knowledgeable in their areas, sought discussion of the options among the various proponents of opposing plans, and both made decisions himself and accepted responsibility for those decisions.

“A Brave, Vigilant, and Energetic Officer”…..47

by James B. Jones Jr.

Behind the lines with Confederate colonel John M. Hughs.

Confederate Colonel John M. Hughs went to the Cumberland Plateau to round up stragglers and deserters with a company of the 25th Tennessee in August 1863.  When Federal troops cut his men off, Hughs decided to conduct guerrilla warfare, proving remarkably effective at this task.  Many guerrillas swelled Hughs’ ranks as word of his success got around.  Hughs never was able to get back to the Army of Tennessee and spent the rest of the war harrassing Federal units with his band.

More Black Confederates…..60

by Thomas P. Lowry and Rev. Albert H. Ledoux

Melungeons and others…

Lowry and Ledoux examine some recent discoveries of possible Black Confederate soldiers and admit that at least some of these men were counted specifically as soldiers in the Confederate Army.  Wiley Stewart of the 4th Tennessee Cavalry appeared to be a “free man of color” who fought as a soldier with that regiment, according to the authors.  However, they question whether he should be called a “Black” Confederate soldier because he was a Melungeon, a person of mixed Eauropean, African, and Native American descent.  The authors can find seven other Melungeons who also fought for the Confederacy.  The article ended with a look at how some Southern states defined the term “colored” in the decades after the Civil War.

Rifle-Muskets in the Civil War…..64

by Bruce Trinque

At what range did infantrymen actually open fire, and how different was this to their Napoleonic counterparts?

Bruce Trinque has done numerical research on the average range at which Civil War infantrymen opened fire during the Civil War, looking at 1861-62, 1863, 1864-65, and Overall.  He concludes that earlier in the war soldiers tended to open up at shorter range, which leaders believed would provide more of a shock.  As the war went on, the range expanded, probably due to more experience among the men in firing their weapons.  He also believes men only first opened fire at shorter ranges late in the war due to terrain or some other range limiting factor.

“Utterly Impossible for Man or Horse”…..68

by James M. Bartek

The seizure of Union gunboats, a commando-style landing, and a grueling cross-country ride, all would be necessary if the war’s most daring escape plan were to work.

In mid-July 1864 the Confederate government organized a potential raid against the accessible Union POW camp at Point Lookout, Maryland.  The idea was to load several gunboats with men, overwhelm the Union gunboats patrolling the waters around Point Lookout, and then free and arm the 14,000 Confederate prisoners of war there to either march on Washington, D.C. or rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia, then besieged around Petersburg.  The plan was launched before being called back immediately by Jefferson Davis because the plan had been leaked, probably by multiple persons according to the author.  This leak also caused the Union authorities massive headaches because they constantly kept on guard for the attack, even well after it had been called off.



Editor Keith Poulter acknowledged the economic downturn has affected North & South.  The magazine will now be 84 pages rather than 100, with most of the removed pages being advertising.  He also noted that articles will be on average 700 words shorter with one fewer illustration.    These changes have allowed the magazine to be printed for 50% less.  Poulter also promises to get back onto a regular bi-monthly publication schedule as well.

In other news, the editor mentions his feelings about the importance of guerrilla warfare during the Civil War years, and promises future articles on the subject in upcoming issues of North & South.



by Albert A. Nofi

A Civil War Digest.

Do You Know?…..30

Civil War Trivia.

Cover Story…..33

The cover of this month’s North and South is by John Paul Strain and features Nathan Bedford Forrest and his “Horse Marines”.

Back Issues…..67

Purchasing Back Issues of North & South.


1.      The London Confederates: The Officials, Clergy, Businessmen, and Journalists Who Backed the American South During the Civil War by John D. Bennett

2.      The Making of a Confederate: Walter Lenoir’s Civil War by William L. Barney

3.      The Civil War Memoirs of a Virginia Cavalryman: Lieutenant Robert T. Hubard, Jr. edited by Thomas P. Nanzig

Civil War Round Tables…..79

A listing of Civil War Round Tables.


One response to “Number 3 (June 2009)”

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