Black Confederates

by James Durney on September 22, 2008 · 37 comments

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Black Confederates

cppbanner Black Confederates

by James Durney

No Civil War subject creates the upset of Black Confederates. For many, the idea that slaves would stay with and be loyal to the Confederacy is unacceptable. The lack of documentation, CSA laws restricting enlistments, racial prejudices and the Emancipation Tradition all stand against the idea of Black Confederates.

Four regiments of blacks served in the West after the Civil War. Two regiments of cavalry and two regiments of infantry made up the United States Colored Troops on active duty in the American Army. According to the Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, blacks were about 10% of the Army on the western frontier. However, Hollywood westerns seldom had blacks as cowboys or soldiers. This is not a denial of their existence but shows that they were not acceptable on the silver screen from the 1930s to the 1970s. During this time they disappear from our view and are all but forgotten. The Ninth & Tenth Cavalry USCT charged with the Rough Riders on San Juan Hill. Eyewitness accounts credit the “Negro Cavalry” for saving the Rough Riders that day. Read about it? No. See it depicted in the press? No. Did it happen? Yes.

About 200,000 blacks served in the Union armies during the Civil War, inducted into service as members of the United States Colored Troops. The USCT served with almost every Union army and in almost every campaign from late 1863 to the end of the war. Burnside’s Corps, The Department of the South and the XXV Army Corps had large numbers of USCT units. All together, members of the USCT fought in 410 engagements and 39 major battles. However, the USCT disappeared from the history of the war in the 1870s. They remained largely invisible until 1989, when Joseph Glatthaar published Forged in Battle. A number of books have followed his groundbreaking work on the USCT. The public’s introduction to the USCT is the movie Glory about the 54th Mass. This regiment has become the poster child for all black men that fought for the North during the war.

Black Americans participated in all aspects of American Life in a separate but equal environment. From 1900 to 1945, the Negro Baseball League functioned alongside the American and National Leagues that were white. Was the Negro League reported? No. Did they exist? Yes. About 30 years ago, we started to recognize them and included them in baseball’s history.

Black Americans entered organized crime along the Mississippi river and controlled a number of towns. During the 1930s, Kansas City and Memphis were the biggest cities controlled by black organizations. They held their turf against the Irish, Jewish and Italian mobs of the upper Midwest. Except for Robert Altman’s movie Kansas City, these groups are invisible.

Starting with the Philippines War from 1899 to 1902 through to the 1916 Expedition to Mexico, World War I, and World War II; from four to twelve percent of the US forces involved were Afro-Americans in the USCT. They do not show up in most history books, photographs, drawings or movies. These were independent black units in a segregated military. President Truman integrated the military by Presidential order after World War II, ending the history of the USCT.

I have provided this background to show that American history has often been “Colored Blind”. Not color blind but Colored Blind. This is defined as the inability to see Afro-Americans outside of the roles White America assigned them. Willing service with the Confederate States of America is NOT an approved role and subject to Colored Blindness. These men suffer from the same problems the Negro Baseball League and USCT units in the American West did. We simply do not see them, colored blindness.

Just over 475,000 free blacks lived in the United States in 1860. 226,000 lived in the Free States with 193,000 living in Slave States. Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia account for about 90% of the South’s free black population. New York, New Jersey, Ohio and Pennsylvania contain about 75% of the North’s free black population. The states that secede have a population of about 75,000 free blacks in 1860.

Slave owners account for about one to thirty percent of the free black population. Twenty percent of the taxable property of Charleston’s free black community is slaves. Sherrod Bryant owned at least 20 slaves working 700 acres in Middle Tennessee. This was a larger plantation than that of Andrew Jackson. Bryant was one of the richer men in middle Tennessee and was a free black. Six free black families in Louisiana owned over 65 slaves each. The Richards family, owning 152 slaves, was the largest of the group. In North Carolina about 69 free blacks owned slaves. South Carolina was the home of William Ellison, one of the richest men in the state and one of the larger slave owners. Ellison owned over 900 acres of land, manufactured cotton gins, and lived next to Dr. W. W. Anderson, the father of CSA General “Fighting Dick” Anderson. His grandson served in the First South Carolina Artillery and was wounded in 1862. At his grandson’s funeral in 1895, a former commander praised the man for being a “faithful solider”. Ellison’s wealth in 1860 was 15 times greater than the average white person and he owned more slaves than 99 percent of the White population. One of the largest black slave owners in Louisiana was part of the state’s Reconstruction Government after the war. Free blacks in Southern states assumed the attitudes of the society that they lived in. They had no more objections to slavery than that of other Southerners and owned slaves whenever possible for the same reasons white Southerners did.

Slaves were the investment of choice for Southerners. The South measured wealth not in land, stocks & bonds but in slaves. Slaves were a very profitable investment and one that increased in value every year. The slave states with less than one third of America’s free population had sixty percent of America’s wealthiest men. The 1860 per capita income of the South was $3,978 almost twice the North’s per capita income of $2,040. Slave ownership was common. In the states that seceded first, about 37% of the population owned slaves. Of the states that seceded after Fort Sumter, about 25% of the population owned slaves. While the average for owning slaves is about 31% in the Confederate states, this masks the true picture. In Mississippi and South Carolina, ownership approached 50%. In Florida, Alabama & Georgia ownership was above one third of the population. Other than Arkansas, the Confederate states ranged from 25% to 30% of the population being slave owners. In the 1950s only two percent of American families held stock equal to the value of a single slave in 1860. In other words, owning slaves was more common in the South in 1860 than owning stock was in the 1950s.

When we think of slavery, the “Gone with the Wind” style plantation is the image that comes to mind. This is the standard image of slavery in the South passed down as part of the Lost Cause Tradition. However, this is not the correct image. Eighty eight percent of all slave owners had no more than 20 slaves. Fifty percent of all slave owners had no more than five slaves. The majority of slaves were in smallholdings with the largest group of owners having two slaves. The majority of slaves were almost members of the household. These owners were unable to provide separate, distinct living quarters, meaning that slave and owner lived in close proximity.

Slaves labored at all levels in Southern society. The “Gone with the Wind” image of unskilled cotton pickers is true only for a minority of slaves. Most provided general labor on farms or cities. Many became skilled workers acquiring a trade and providing essential services in their community. The only area truly closed to slave labor was the professional fields requiring extensive schooling. These were generally limited to teaching school, medicine and law. However, many slaves worked as nurses and/or hospital stewards during the war making one question how closed medicine below the level of doctor was.

Slaves lived in an environment that was both trusting and suspicious.

Slave revolts, while rare, terrified Southerners. In August 1800, Richmond slaves gave up the leaders of a slave revolt. Rumor says over a thousand slaves planned on taking the city, plundering the arsenal and starting a full revolution. Charleston is the site of the next major revolt in 1822. Planning included the mass murder of whites. Once again, the revolt was discovered when members of the plot betrayed the leaders. While much planning was in place and some preparations made, no white person was harmed in these revolts. This changed on August 20, 1831. Nat Turner and about 60 followers murdered 55 whites in the most violent slave revolt in America. Turner and company were quickly identified and hunted down. At least 15 of his band died during the pursuit and capture. Nat Turner eluded capture for six additional weeks. In November 1831 Turner is captured, hanged and skinned, ending the most serious of the slave revolts.

John Brown’s raid at Harpers Ferry may have had more impact than Nat Turner’s revolt on the Southern mind. Brown’s raid convinced many that Northern abolitionists were willing to see Southerners slaughtered in their beds. The fact that Brown was white added to the revulsion gripping the South. The slave revolts and Brown’s raid fueled an active rumor mill throughout the South. In response to the rumors and fear, the local militias became more professional, the position of slave catcher was created, and restrictive laws governing slave conduct were passed.

In spite of the rumors, revolts and raids, slaves were a fixture in society and homes. Many slaves achieved the status of almost family based on years of shared experiences and association. Owners had to trust their slaves with their lives while fearing a slave revolt at the same time. Rumors of attempted revolts, stories of runaways and occasional violence against an owner all contributed to the need for security while eroding confidence. A dual level of trust and suspicion seems to have developed, where the closer the slave was to the owner the higher the trust level. In practice, this created a class system among the slaves. House servants and skilled workers occupied a higher class than the semiskilled worker or unskilled field hand. With the majority of slaves in smallholdings, slave families often belonged to multiple households. In practice, this allowed for a regular movement between houses on Saturday afternoon and Sunday evening. Owners gave slaves passes that allowed them to visit their families on the Sabbath. This practice was very common throughout the South and seems to have allowed some freedom to slaves. Slave churches were a major source of community. While some owners attended these churches, the majority seem to have allowed slaves to attend with little or no oversight.

Runaways were constant. However, most fell under the current military AWOL rules as opposed to desertion. [Note: AWOL assumes the person plans on returning to duty, while desertion assumes they do not plan on returning.] Not returning from a family visit or trip to town as expected, hiding out until anger cools over damaging something were far more common than trying to escape north. The average person never went 50 miles from where they lived. Slaves normally had an even smaller area that they lived in. Chronic problems resulted in being “sold south”, a complete severance from the slave’s family, friends and world.

Owners and slaves existed in a complex multi layered relationship that could be very close but was always defined by race. America defined all contact between the races in very hard terms. In many ways, the South was more accepting of blacks and blacks were better integrated into society than in the North.

In 1861, America formally split into two nations and went to war. The South fought to break away and maintain their society and values in a second American Revolution. The North fought to preserve the United States and force the South back into the nation in the War of Rebellion. The 75,000 free blacks and just over 3,000,000 slaves were about thirty-five percent of their Southern population. While the North refused to consider enlisting any of their black population, the South had no such problems. Free blacks enlisted in the army as musicians from the outset of the war. The Confederate Congress passed a law giving black and white bandsman the same pay. Another law limited blacks to no more than one-twentieth of a ship’s crew. In 1865, Stephen R. Mallory stated the Navy needed over 1,100 black seamen.

Enlisted bandsmen and seamen do not comprise the major percentage of Black Confederates. Nor do the large numbers of black men slave and free working on fortifications. In terms of gross numbers, short term conscripted black labor is the largest category of blacks that saw Confederate service. However, these men seldom traveled with an army, were not normally involved in long-term service and almost never came under fire or participated in a battle. Body servants, cooks and teamsters make up the majority of Black Confederates. These men, while never enlisted, traveled and served the army. They came under fire just as often as support elements in an army. When we talk about Black Confederates, we are talking about this group. Men that chose to stay and travel with units in Confederate armies; that chose not to slip away, serving as faithfully as any enlisted soldier. This is the Black Confederate.

While their existence is in question and smirked at now, their existence was accepted during the war. In the late summer of 1861, Frederick Douglas stated the following: “There are at the present moment many Colored men in the Confederate Army doing duty not only as cooks, servants and laborers, but real soldiers, having musket on their shoulders, and bullets in their pockets, ready to shoot down any loyal troops and do all that soldiers may do to destroy the Federal government and build up that of the rebels.” No one questioned his statement and it helped justify the creation of The United States Colored Troops. Harper’s Weekly often contained stories of armed Negroes in Confederate service. Much of the groundwork for the USCT came from the Union Army’s experience with blacks serving in Confederate armies. These stories, few of which were questioned, helped build acceptance for the USCT.

The most accepted example of Black Confederates comes from Nathan Bedford Forrest. In 1861, Forrest received authorization to raise a mounted regiment. As part of the process, he offered freedom to any male slave who would serve with him during the war. Over 25 volunteered, forming a pioneer company within the regiment. These men stayed with Forrest throughout the war. However, they did not have to wait until 1865 for emancipation. While recovering from one of his many wounds, Forrest freed these men. He feared that being killed could create unexpected problems and keep these slaves from being freed.

In the movie Gods and Generals, Stonewall Jackson hires a slave to be his cook. This sequence generated a large numbers of comments, most of which were negative. The objection was to the idea of a slave being willing to serve the Confederate General Jackson. However, the new Robert E. Rodes biography tells the following story: Lt. Robert Park’s black cook is being reassigned from the 12th Alabama to brigade as a teamster. Lt. Park confronts General Rodes, the division commander, stating this is an attempt by Major Bryan to steal his cook. General Rodes declines to get involved. Lt. Park refuses to obey the order. This is 1863, the unnamed cook has been with the 12th Alabama long enough to develop a reputation that brigade hears about. If he were the only black man in the Army of Northern Virginia, General Rodes would have taken steps to remove him. The story shows the acceptance of black men as cooks and teamsters in 1863.

William Marvel in Lincoln’s Darkest Year: The War in 1862 recounts the following well-known story. Lewis Steiner was in Frederick Maryland when Jackson’s command marched through the town. A member of the Sanitary Commission, Steiner closely observed the Confederates making note of the condition of their equipment, uniforms and numbers. Among these observations was the presence of no fewer than three thousand black men, wearing a mix of Confederate, Union and civilian clothing and armed with a variety of firearms and cutlery. Many were riding on horses or mules. Others rode with the artillery or ambulances. Many were teamsters driving wagons bearing United States marking. Jackson was officially commanding an army of about 12,800 men. Three thousand black men would increase Jackson’s numbers by about twenty-five percent. If we apply these numbers to the Army of Northern Virginia, in September 1862 just over seven thousand black men would have taken part in the Antietam Campaign, based on CSA numbers from Antietam: The Soldiers’ Battle by John Michael Priest.

In July of 1863, we have another chance to gauge the presence of black men in Lee’s army. Arthur Fremantle, a Captain in the Coldstream Guards who has the rank Lieutenant Colonel in the regular British army, managed to enter the Confederacy and travel with Longstreet’s command during the Gettysburg Campaign. He was an observer at the battle of Gettysburg but not in uniform as depicted in the movie. Back home, he published Three Months in the Southern States; April-June 1863, an account of his travels and observations. An edited version of his book, published in the 1950’s, remains in print. This version is a source used by many books on the battle of Gettysburg. Fremantle recounts an incident where an armed black man, dressed in Confederate and Union uniform items, escorts Union prisoners of war to the rear. He states that every regiment and battery has from 20 to 40 black men traveling with it. His description of their dress and arms is similar to the description of Jackson’s command in 1862. This indicates that Lee’s army had not changed any policies and still contained a substantial number of black men. Longstreet had 72 regiments and batteries with just under 21,000 men carried on the rolls. If we use 20 black men with each battery and 30 with each regiment Longstreet’s Corps in July 1863 had just under 2,000 black men embedded in the units, an additional 9.4% above the official muster rolls.

Teamsters are not included with this number; they are not considered regimental assets. The Antietam percentages for Jackson’s command included Teamsters. Using these percentages for the Army of Northern Virginia in July 1863 adds about 17,500 men in regiments, batteries, and working as teamsters. This would give Lee an army of about 92,500 at Gettysburg. This is almost 7,500 more men than Meade. If we take only the I Corps numbers, Lee and Meade are almost equal in strength. One possible explanation for why Confederate armies always fought much bigger than their paper strength is the presence of uncounted black men. These men freed whites to man the firing line by filling positions that soldiers filled in the Union army.

As related in General Lee’s Army: From Victory to Collapse, of the 1861 volunteers that filled the ranks of the Army of Northern Virginia, 36% owned slaves or were members of families that owned slaves. When jobs based on slavery are included almost 50% of the 1861 army had a connection to slaves. For the period of the entire war two out of three officers and four of nine enlisted men owned slaves or came from families that did. What does that mean in terms of numbers? At the start of The Seven Days, Lee had an army of about 92,000 men. 46,000 of those men had access to slaves. If 10% of these men had a body servant, the AoNV increases by 4,600 or about five percent. If 20% of these men had a body servant, the AoNV increases by 9,200 or about ten percent. These numbers do not include hired teamsters. If we apply Lewis Steiner’s 25%, the AoNV going into The Seven Days contained 23,000 black men serving in that army. Lee’s army would have had 115,000 men black and white moving to battle.

An individual black man enlisting as a Confederate soldier was uncommon but not unknown. Confederate Emancipation is the best account of the contentious path to accepting the idea of a Confederate States Colored Troops. In 1865, a couple of black companies were drilling in Richmond. There is no evidence that any of these men saw the elephant or were more than a last ditch effort at reversing defeat. The tens of thousands of black men assigned to work details during the war should not be considered Black Confederates. Their service was not more than a couple of months and most worked for only a few weeks. Their most common task was to dig fortifications. This activity was very unpopular with slave owners, who objected and often obstructed the drafting of slaves in every way possible. A common observation in the CSA was that slave owners were more protective of their slaves than their sons.

Black Confederates and Black Southerners in Confederate Armies are a collection of incidents and facts about blacks serving the Confederacy. As previously stated, the official CSA war records do not support Black Confederates. They exist in a multitude of photos, letters and pension records. The authors worked with these items producing two books which, while not readable, were very thought provoking. The United Confederate Veterans included many black men at their meetings. It is common to find pictures of a group of elderly white men in UCV dress with an elderly black man. At the 1913 Gettysburg reunion, no provision was made for black accommodations. When Black men started to appear in large numbers, the UCV welcomed them and made room for them within their encampment. There were no USCT units at Gettysburg, so any black men had to be members of Lee’s army.

As veterans aged pensions became an issue. The United States Government pensions system dated from the war and continually expanded to meet the needs of aging Union veterans. Confederate veterans enjoyed no federal support. Forced on local charity they got by as best they could. As things improved in the South, veterans were able to force pension bills into law in the states that had made up the Confederacy. Never as comprehensive or as good as the Federal pensions, they provided some compensation. In the years between 1915 and 1920, states extended CSA pensions to black men who had served in CSA armies. For 20 years, black men applied to these states for a pension based on their service. Local UCV posts supported many of these applications and specified that the applicant was a member in good standing. In 1920s, the average American male lived 55.5 years. The time between the end of the war and 1915 was almost the average male life span. The state of Tennessee received 267 applications for a pension from black men. York County, South Carolina recorded 30 applications. Keep in mind this state did not accept pensions from blacks until 1923. Virginia approved almost 1,000 pensions. 387 of the applications contained a regiment and company, indicating they were in combat units and possibly combat situations. Every Southern state with the exception of Missouri received applications and granted pensions to Black Confederates. The state of Missouri was notorious for not granting pensions to citizens that fought for the CSA. The fact that they granted no pensions to black men is not an indication black men did not serve in Missouri units.

Grandville Moody was commander of Camp Chase outside of Columbus, Ohio in 1862. From 1861 to the end of the war, Camp Chase was a POW camp. The web page states, “The camp received its first large influx of captured Confederates from western campaigns, including enlisted men, officers, and a few of the latter’s black servants.” Grandville Moody’s autobiography says he refused to treat black and white POWs differently. He reported that, “No small measure of indignation was aroused in the public mind, in relation to the status of the ‘colored population’ held in confinement at Camp Chase”. A Senate committee in their report upon the subject inquired, “Why are those Negroes there at all?” The question was certainly a most appropriate one. Upon investigation, they found that they were placed there as prisoners of war – a position as dignified as that enjoyed by their masters. “The Negroes were taken as participants in the rebel cause, some with arms in their hands against our loyal troops, and against our flag, others aiding their rebel masters in camp duty. This being the case, they were sent by General Halleck to Camp Chase in the same category as their masters were; namely, as prisoners of war taken in battle.” The Confederate Burial Mound for Camp Morton at Indianapolis, Indiana has a bronze tablet listing the 1,616 Confederates who died at that camp. Among those names are 26 Black Southerners. Most of the Union POW camps held black men that were exchanged with and for Union soldiers.

Whether these Black Confederates saw the elephant, engaging in combat, is an open question. The Confederacy contained no organized Black combat units, in spite of the reports in Harper’s Illustrated Weekly. However, consistent reports of black men seen on the firing line should not be discounted. During the Peninsula Campaign, a black sniper inspired fear and respect until killed by artillery fire. At the battle of Perryville, Union troops reported black men fighting in Louisiana regiments. We have covered Arthur Fremantle’s Gettysburg experience indicating that black men escorted Union prisoners to the rear. The best-known example of black men fighting occurs on July 7, 1863 at Williamsport, MD. General Imboden stopped the Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying the Confederate trains. For many years, this was known as “the Wagoner’s Fight” in honor of the teamsters who left their wagons, secured arms and fought alongside of Imboden’s men.

The states of the Confederacy contained about three million slaves in 1860. During the war, many of the men became part of the USCT. We need to remember that the free black population of the Northern states was about 400,000 and they joined the USCT too. An indeterminate number fled into Union lines, especially after 1862. However, the majority passively supported the South by continuing to live their pre-war life. This is not to say they were unhappy with emancipation, but that they simply stayed home living their lives. The men that stayed with the armies actively supported the South. It is easy to view these men as fighting to remain slaves. Physiological terms, from our times, like Stockholm syndrome and Identifying with the Oppressor are often used to explain away their motivations. One author suggested that the term Black Confederates is incorrect and they should be called “Confederate Slaves” instead. This assumes these men were so lacking in intelligence or so brutalized that they were incapable of making decisions. It makes the assumption these men lacked the intelligence or were so closely watched that it was impossible to for them escape. “Confederate Slaves” ignores the men who chose a Union POW camp rather than be freed. If you view the Civil War as a great battle between the “good Abolitionist North” and the “evil slave holding South”, these explanations are a comfort. The simple explanation is that these men felt they were there defending home and family. Accepting this idea requires us to see these men not as black but as Southerners who identified with defending home and family. This is the same idea that motivated White Confederates and kept these men in the field.

The last question is always “How many?” We do not have a good count of how many white men enlisted in Southern armies. How could we have a good count of how many body servants, cooks, hospital stewards, musicians and teamsters were in Southern armies? The most accepted estimate for white men enlisted or drafted is 880,000. The estimate for Black Confederates is 30,000 to 80,000. The most used figure is 50,000.

Black Confederates will not go away. In spite of all the educators’ official denials of their existence, scholarship is starting to admit they exist. Once they are no longer considered a myth, we can start working on numbers.

Bibliography

MAJOR GENERAL ROBERT E RODES OF THE ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA: A Biography by Darrell L. Collins

Lincoln’s Darkest Year: The War in 1862 by William Marvel

Antietam: The Soldiers’ Battle (Paperback) by John Michael Priest

Three Months in the Southern States; April-June 1863 by Arthur J. L. Fremantle

Brigades of Gettysburg: The Union and Confederate Brigades at the Battle of Gettysburg by Bradley M. Gottfried

The Artillery of Gettysburg by Bradley M. Gottfried

General Lee’s Army: From Victory to Collapse by Joseph Glatthaar

Confederate Emancipation: Southern Plans to Free and Arm Slaves during the Civil War by Bruce Levine

Black Confederates by Charles Barrow, J. H. Segars, and R. B. Rosenburg

Black Southerners in Confederate Armies by J. H. Segars and Charles Kelly Barrow


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{ 35 comments… read them below or add one }

Craig September 22, 2008 at 8:11 am

I think the analogy to the USCT’s post war service is a weak link. Saying the USCT did not get “press coverage” is not exactly the same as saying the Army suppressed knowledge of, or involvment with them. Instead, the opposite is true. Should the researcher ask for even the most obscure service-member’s records for a USCT soldier who served within the Army from say, the Span-Am War, there is a paper trail. Just because the service of the USCT didn’t show on the front page of the papers during that war does not equate to some suberfuge to suppress the story. Actually, considiering the number of men involved, and the propensity for the press to focus on the flash and show, I don’t find it suprising that the USCT failed to grab headlines in the Span-Am War. Consider the bulk of the units that served were scarely mentioned, and hardly remembered today.

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Bryn Monnery September 22, 2008 at 8:57 am

The Seven Days numbers are interesting. Livermore counts 116,000, and the 28,000 difference between the commonly stated figures and Livermore’s could be colored troops.

The source of recruitment for the USCT is in dispute I believe. I’m informed that a book I haven’t read (Forged In Battle,The Civil War Alliance Of Black Soldiers And White Officers by Joseph Glatthaar) gives the number of colored troops from the northern states (and Canada) as 34,000.

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Stephen Graham September 22, 2008 at 11:32 pm

James,

I have no idea why this is such an obsession with you.

As I pointed out the last time you posted something like this, you are counting individuals who served the Confederate army in civilian positions. You are not, however, counting the similar numbers of individuals serving the US armies in identical capacities. Why is that? And I’m not talking about detailed men.

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James Durney September 23, 2008 at 9:29 am

Stephen,
I would consider “obsession” a very strong term and prefer interest. The denial of these men’s existence by many, I would consider an “obsession”. No one questions the majority Black Confederates were not carried on regimental rolls. However, this should not be grounds to deny their existence.
In answer to your question about those serving in Union armies, no one denies their existence.

James

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Stephen Graham September 23, 2008 at 11:40 pm

How many thousands of individuals occupied equivalent roles with the US armies? Does this tell us anything? Should we be concerned whether or not they received pensions?

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James Durney September 24, 2008 at 9:41 am

The individuals with US armies are not in question or I don’t recall them being questioned.
In addition, to my knowledge:
1) their race was never an issue
2) I’ve not seen anything on the US granting pensions to them in the 1920s in reconition of their service.
For blacks serving in/with CSA armies the issue is the denial of their existance. The facts support tens of thousands, willingly serving. Some find this very upsetting and will deny their existance and/or raise misc. objections.

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Craig Swain September 24, 2008 at 7:30 pm

I don’t follow you here James. Are you saying that the determining factor for the question, “Was he a solder?” has to be if a person received a pension or not?

Sounds like a bad litmus test to use. I’ve heard of members of the U.S. Sanitary Commission receiving pensions for wartime service. While their work was noteworthy, they weren’t soldiers.

I think a better test would be, “Did this person take an oath to defend their country/state?” This would differentiate between men who served as soldiers (your term “willingly served” can be rather misleading too), and those who were just there for the pay, as in teamsters.

A good example, looking at today’s headlines – There are soldiers in Iraq. And there are contractors in Iraq. Nobody would say that KBR employees in Iraq are not “willingly serving.” Like the teamsters of old, some are armed. But they are not soldiers (although some may have been in the past). They are employed to do a job, supporting those who took the oath.

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James Durney September 24, 2008 at 10:04 pm

Not at all. However, Southern states gave pensions to black men based on service with CSA armies. That should count for something. Very few say Balck Confederates were soldiers but they were there and performed services for the CSA. The idea that since they were not soldiers is used to say they do not exist. What is the problem is some blacks supported the CSA? Blacks, like whites, should not be required to conform to some racial group think.

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Stephen Graham September 24, 2008 at 11:59 pm

James, since we’ve discussed this before, you know that I’m perfectly willing to admit to the presence of thousands of blacks in support positions, some willing, some unwilling. But they’re exactly equivalent to those supporting the U.S. armies.

The pensions issue is a red herring. As Robert Moore has pointed out, those pensions also went to white civilian employees, who are even more forgotten. I don’t see you declaring them to be [anything] Confederates.

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BorderRuffian September 25, 2008 at 9:58 am

Stephen Graham:
“they’re exactly equivalent to those supporting the U.S. armies.”

************

This doesn’t matter.

Who James Durney, or the SCV, or anyone else wish to recognize or honor is their business.

And it’s your business if you choose NOT to recognize those in the Federal army performing similar duties.

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Craig September 25, 2008 at 11:09 am

James, what context are you using the word “support”?

Is it to say, “a person who provided material or contributed labor to the war effort, regardless of any political motivation.”

Or is it to say, “a person who backed, advocated, or approved the Confederacy.”

Those are two different and distinct contexts. Saying someone worked in a factory producing guns is not the same as saying that person was in favor of any particular political stance or advocated the war.

Again, for a good modern example, I could well say every American today “supports” the war in Iraq by virtue of the fact their tax dollars go to fund the war. I could also say many Americans do not “support” the war in Iraq, because they do not back, advocate, or approve the efforts there.

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James Durney September 25, 2008 at 8:11 pm

Craig,

I fail to see how we can establish a state of mind for people in 1860 to 1865. We can establish what they did. That black men went into USA POW camps can be established. That Freemantle said he saw a black man in charge of POWs at Gettysburg can be establsihed. That armed black men travled with CSA armies can be established.
I say that an armed man, travling with an army, who is trusted to lead POWs to the rear, wants to be there and supports that cause.

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Craig Swain September 25, 2008 at 8:38 pm

Actually we can establish some of the state of mind. Can you located any place where any of these “Black Confederates” took any oaths of service to defend the Confederate States/Confederate Constitution?

Find that and you have a case for blacks supporting the Confederacy in the second sense of the word, which I offer.

Otherwise all you can say is there were many black men, who just like many white men of the time, profited from the war by offering services. Doesn’t mean they approved of the Confederacy, just means all we can prove is they liked the pay. To presume any thing more would be, as you say establishing the state of mind for someone who is long gone.

An armed man, trusted to lead POWs? That was exactly one of the details given to civilian contractors in the recent ground phase of the Iraq war. Does that mean KBR employees are “solders”?

Again, my point is you should take the time and define your terms to strengthen your premise. What exactly is your definition of “soldier” and what is your definition of “support”?

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 7:05 am

Craig Swain-

“Actually we can establish some of the state of mind. Can you located any place where any of these “Black Confederates” took any oaths of service to defend the Confederate States/Confederate Constitution?”
=========================

Though the question was not directed at me…I will answer-

Yes, many.

I’ll dig a few up and post them this afternoon.

Reply

Craig September 26, 2008 at 7:20 am

I think you are missing the point. I am not asking for another recital of some source material. I’ll assume you’ve done your research and not question that. What I am asking you to do is better explain your premise. As it stands, I cannot see where your argument stands?

Are you saying that blacks worked in the war effort because they were paid? Or are you saying that the fact that blacks worked in these supporting rols is proof they wanted an independent Confederacy?

Again we are back to, terms and definitions. If you could be so kind as to explain what you mean by the terms “service” and “soldier” in partiuclar, that would perhaps help others understand the point you are making.

As things stand, I would assume you agree that Haliburton CEOs could be called “soldiers” and should get pensions from the government based on their “support” of the Iraq War. Is that parallel to what you are saying?

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BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 7:24 am

Randles, Stephen, “Free Negro”
Co. A, 25th Tennessee Infantry
“Sworn” and mustered in July 25, 1861

Rickman, Ab, “Free Negro”
Co. A, 25th Tennessee Infantry
“Sworn” and mustered in July 25, 1861

Source:
National Archives Compiled Service Records

Reply

Craig September 26, 2008 at 7:54 am

Interesting that those two individuals were “sworn in” to the 25th Tennessee Regiment when that organization didn’t exist at that time.

On its surface, I’d say we need to see more than a muster roll there. Were these individuals enlisting in one of the many companies which were later organized into the 25th Tennessee?

What proof do we have that these men were indeed “free Negros”? Freedmen had to register with the county (and many times the state) for tax puroposes in Tennessee. Do we have that paper trail?

A quick review of the National Archives material on line does indicate those gentlmen are listed with the regiments in question. But the enlistment dates are not included as on file.

Now we are back again to more definitions of terms. What do you consider a “free negro” and what do you define as “enlistment.” Clearly here we also have questions regarding when and to which unit these men served (regardless of how that is defined).

I’ll have to look back at some of my notes for West Tennessee Regiments also. I seem to recall at least a few instances of freedmen from Obion County who first worked as pioneers (or some variation of “ditch diggers”) for a Confederate regiment (and were included on their rollls). Later those same men pop up on muster rolls for a Tennessee UNION regiment, assigned similar supporting rolls. Sort of made the case these men were more interested in the tumble of money in the pocket than to any anything about states rights.

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 8:57 am

Craig-
“Interesting that those two individuals were “sworn in” to the 25th Tennessee Regiment when that organization didn’t exist at that time.

On its surface, I’d say we need to see more than a muster roll there. Were these individuals enlisting in one of the many companies which were later organized into the 25th Tennessee?”
===========================

The information was taken from a roll dated October 1, 1861…the day that the 25th Tennessee was mustered into Confederate service.

The two listed- Randles and Rickman -were also mustered into Confederate service.

Are you going to claim they didn’t take an oath when they were mustered into service?

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 9:05 am

The rest of your post is nitpick…but it is amusing.

Craig-
“Now we are back again to more definitions of terms. What do you consider a ‘free negro’ and what do you define as ‘enlistment.’ Clearly here we also have questions regarding when and to which unit these men served (regardless of how that is defined).”
====================

We also need to know what the definition of ‘is’ is…

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Craig September 26, 2008 at 9:46 am

No I’m simply saying what I’ve said from the beginning. You need to define some terms. I’m begining to note a great reluctance you your part to do so.

I could easily make the argument now that members of the US Congress, in the Democratic party in 1862, who voted against particular war related bills were also “serving the Confederacy.”

Why not just state what you define as “a soldier” and “service”?

The two examples you’ve given leave more questions that answers. You have men enlisting in one organization in July, but that organization didn’t exist in July. Sort of nullifies the premise these guys were serving the Confederate Army at the time they swore an oath, if the organization they were joining wasn’t serving the Confederate Army at the time they swore the oath!

Did they take the oath in July or in October?
When they took the oath, who was it to? The Confederacy, the state, the orgnaization?

And even beyond that, you haven’t even proved they swore anything. Just they were mustered into service with something, somewhere.

Again, if you are trying to build an iron clad case here, you are lacking definitions.

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 11:12 am

Craig-
“The two examples you’ve given leave more questions that answers. You have men enlisting in one organization in July, but that organization didn’t exist in July.”

What is your source?

Craig-
“Did they take the oath in July or in October?
When they took the oath, who was it to? The Confederacy, the state, the orgnaization?”

Army regulations, whether state or Confederate (or anywhere else), requires an oath to be administered to recruits.

Did you not know this?

Reply

Craig September 26, 2008 at 11:49 am

You yourself stated the 25th Tennessee was not placed in CS service until Octover 1861.

So maybe I should be asking you for YOUR source……

Again the question is on the table – what is your definition of “service” and what is your definition of “solder”?

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 1:00 pm

C-
“You yourself stated the 25th Tennessee was not placed in CS service until Octover 1861.

So maybe I should be asking you for YOUR source……”
=============================

National Archives.

Whenever the two listed (post#16) entered Confederate service they would have taken an oath.

What is your source?

C-
Again the question is on the table – what is your definition of “service”
================================

This describes it well enough-

“I will bear true allegiance to the Confederate States of America, and that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers whatsoever, and observe and obey the orders of the President of the Confederate States, and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to the rules and articles for the government of the armies of the Confederate States.”

C-
and what is your definition of “solder”?
============================

The technical definition would be-
enlisted and mustered into military service.

Reply

Craig September 26, 2008 at 1:41 pm

But by your own words, we have no record these men enlisted and mustered into Confederate Service. Only into “something” that was before the regiment existed, or the regiment was brought into CS service.

We keep coming around to the same issue. An ever expanding definition of what “service” was.

Veritas Curat.

Reply

BorderRuffian September 26, 2008 at 1:48 pm

“But by your own words, we have no record these men enlisted and mustered into Confederate Service. Only into “something” that was before the regiment existed, or the regiment was brought into CS service. ”
============================

See post #18.

You still have not given the source for your claim the unit was not in existence in July 1861.

What is your source?

Reply

Craig September 26, 2008 at 2:41 pm

The “source” was you. Look back at your statements. Both examples enlisted in July 1861. The unit was not brought on CS service until October. A gap of months before those individuals could have possibly “served” the Confederacy with the 25th Tennessee.

I could go further and point out that “Tennesseans in the War” states the 25th was not formed until mid August. (And the regiment was not released by the state until October). In theory your two “Rs” might have pledged service to a local milita organization or the State of Tenneseee. But they wouldn’t have pledged anything to the Confederacy until after October. And by your own admission, there isn’t any information about that date. Nor for when the individuals were mustered out or parolled.

I guess we’ll just have to say under your loose definition, there were plenty of Black Confederates. Unfortunately, if we apply your same definition to modern times, then a lot of “contractors” are serving as soldiers.

I do believe there were some black soldiers serving the Confederacy. Not a very large number. But I don’t think that lacing the argument in loose definitions, then shoe horning evidence to fit those definitions, is convincing.

It’s been nice debating, but I think I’ve proven my point to the greater audience. Clearly I haven’t changed your mind set on this. Peace be with you, and good luck as you research this further.

Reply

Bryn Monnery September 26, 2008 at 4:14 pm

Gentlemen,

I’d urge you to stop squabbling over trivia, especially when there is either spurious logic or deliberate obtuseness occurring.

The 25th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, like a lot of Tennessee Regiments, mustered in with a number of Free Negros. It was later accepted into Confederate “Federal” service. Unless some evidence that all the Negros were deliberately expelled on that date is available, the matter is settled. There were free negro soldiers serving in the 25th Tennessee in Confederate service.

Frankly, I don’t see the point of this argument. There is an overwhelming body of evidence that coloured troops, both free and slave, served as combatants in Confederate service. What’s left to determine is how many there were. The figures would indicate that roughly 1 in 10 Confederate combatants were coloured, mostly from the Free Negro population that had so much to lose in the event of a Union victory.

Reply

admin September 26, 2008 at 4:34 pm

Bryn,

What figures are you referring to? And by combatant do you mean someone who carried arms in a Confederate unit? If so, I find it very hard to believe 1 in 10 armed Confederate soldiers was black.

Brett

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Stephen Graham September 26, 2008 at 11:42 pm

If the numbers were 1 in 10, why was there any debate about enlisting blacks in 1864-5? Yet we can see the debate in the Confederate Congress and elsewhere.

Reply

admin September 27, 2008 at 10:16 am

Stephen makes a good point. Just for the record, my view is that there were probably a small handful of Blacks in the Confederate army who would have stayed even if they were given a choice to leave with no strings attached. There were also instances where Blacks took up arms and fought against Union soldiers, even though those Blacks would have left given the chance. Talk of 1 in 10 Confederate soldiers being Black to me is pretty far-fetched.

Please note:

1) I’m not denying the presence of Black Confederate soldiers. There certainly were some. It’s just that they numbered in the hundreds rather than the hundred thousands.

2) There WERE thousands of Blacks working in jobs such as cooks and teamsters which freed up more Whites to do the actual fighting.

If you consider #2 Black Confederates, then I see how you can say 1 in 10 men with the Confederate armies was Black. If you only consider Black Confederates to be number 1, there were FAR, FAR fewer men.

Brett

Reply

James Durney September 27, 2008 at 7:15 pm

If blacks in CSA armies only number in the hundreds a large number died in one Union POW camp. “The Confederate Burial Mound for Camp Morton, at Indianapolis, Indiana, has a bronze tablet listing the 1,616 Confederates who died at that camp. Among those names are 26 Black Southerners.”
Enough were at Camp Chase in 1862 for the Congress to ask questions about them.

However, acceptance of the idea is the most important step!

Reply

admin September 27, 2008 at 9:30 pm

Jim,

26 out of 1616 is 1.6%. My point is that nowhere near 1 in 10 armed Confederate soldiers was Black.

Brett

Reply

Mike Priest February 19, 2009 at 8:49 am

I have been studying the 49th NY and its brigade for years. Interestingly enough the 33rd NY at Lee’s Mills in 1862 encountered Black infantry in the Confederate ranks. Following the fight at Williamsburg, Black Confederate cavalry reouted some of the 5th U.S. cavalry during Johnson’s rearguard action. Black artillerymen manned several of the guns along the Warwick and were shot down by Union riflemen. (The last tow incidents were recorded in a letter in the Fredonia Censor in a862. They were written by a soldier in the 49th New York.

I do not know if those individuals were slaves or not. What I do know is that Federal soldiers clearly wrote home that they encountered Black Confederates in action in Virginia.

The person to contact in regard to this would be professor Ed Smith at American University. I have not seen him for quite some time. He is probably retired but it would be worth discussing the matter with him.

I do not know how many Blacks served in the Confederate ranks and I would not hazard to guess. I know that the three instances I mentioned are documented. See Contant’s, Paths of Blood for the incident at Lee’s Mills.

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LaTour Ancestry World September 26, 2009 at 6:13 am

My Great-Great-Great Grandfather was a African-American Confederate Soldier from Louisiana.

Louisiana, unlike other southern states, primarily maintained separated white and black military organizations. A few Louisiana “free blacks”, however, served in white Confederated units and received Confederate pensions. Among them were Charles Lutz, Jean Baptiste Pierre-Auguste, and Leufroy Pierre-Auguste of St. Landry Parish, who fought with the Confederate army troops at Shiloh, Fredericksburg, and Vicksburg.

Confederate Research Sources
Civil War Service:

Auguste, Lufoy Pierre. Pvt. Co. K. 16th La. Infty. En. Sept. 29th, 1861, Camp Moore, La. Present on All Rolls from Sept., 1861, to Oct., 1862. Roll for Nov. and Dec., 1862, ?Colored Man. Dropped from Roll by Order of Col.
Gober, Dec. 8th, 1862.?

CIVIL WAR HISTORY, Volume XXXII, No. 3, September, 1986

FREE MEN OF COLOR IN GREY
Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr.

Lufroy Pierre-Auguste was born in St. Landry Parish about 1830. He was the son of Pierre Pierre-Auguste and Gabriele Tessier, free persons of color. The 1860 census shows that Lufroy worked as a stockherder for Francois P. Pitre, Jr. Lufroy left his farm and joined Captain Daniel Gober’s Big Cane rifles, which became Company K, Sixteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment. The first two muster rolls of this company list him as a free man of color-the only such instance found in researching these men. None of the men discussed in this manuscript, except for Lutz and possibly Gabriel Grappe, pretended they were white. The other men in their units undoubtedly knew them as free blacks. The Sixteenth Louisiana fought in the battles of Shiloh, Farmington, and Perrysville. On December 8, 1862, while in camp at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Lufroy received a discharge from Confederate service. The reason given for his dicharge was that he was a “colored man.” Apparently superior authorities had finally discovered that he was black and ordered his separation from the army. Lufroy went home, but he did become involved in one other incident before war’s end. On May 13, 1865, he surprised two Jayhawkers near Opelousas. These men made up part of a band of outlaws, deserters, and draft dodgers who resisted Confederate authority. The two Jayhawkers fired at him, and he returned fire, hitting one of the men. Lufroy married in 1869, but no further information on his life after the war has come to light so far.

****************************************

1860 United States Federal Census

Name: Lufroid p Auguste
Age in 1860: 30
Birth Year: abt 1830
Birthplace: Saint Landry
Home in 1860: Opelousas, St Landry, Louisiana
Race: Mulatto
Gender: Male
Post Office: Grand Coteau
Value of real estate: View image
Household Members: Name Age
Francois P Pitre 33
Azeline C Pitre 28
Francois Pitre 10
Estelle Pitre 9
Arthure Pitre 7
Azeline Pitre 5
Armant Pitre 3
Octave Pitre 9.12
Diomel s Durio 16
Lufroid p Auguste 30

****************************************

1870 St. Landry Parish, LA Census Record

Leufroi Pierre-Auguste 40 M Mulatto LA Farmer $300 $225
Caroline Pierre-Auguste 37 F Mulatto LA
Celestine Pierre-Auguste 21 F Mulatto LA
Narcisse Pierre-Auguste 17 M Mulatto LA
Azelie Pierre-Auguste 14 F Mulatto LA
Valmont Pierre-Auguste 13 M Mulatto LA
Pierre Pierre-Auguste 11 M Mulatto LA
Eugenie Pierre-Auguste 8 F Mulatto LA *Wife of Valmont LeBlanc brother
to William, Elizabeth, Zeolide, Etienne
Meranthe Pierre-Auguste 6 F Mulatto LA *Wife of William LeBlanc

****************************************
William Leblanc m. November 26, 1879 Merante Pierre August (Opelousas Courthouse marriage #11100). Married December 18, 1879, St. Landry Catholic Church, Vol. 2, page 521
****************************************

1880 United States Federal Census

Home in 1880: 1st Ward, Saint Landry, Louisiana
Auguste Lufroid Pierre 50 M Mulatto LA Farm Laborer
Caroline Pierre 50 F Mulatto LA
Eustine Pierre 30 F Mulatto LA Daughter
Ophelia Pierre 9 F Mulatto LA Granddaughter

****************************************

1900 United States Federal Census

Name: Marrent Lablanc
Home in 1900: Police Jury Ward 1, Saint Landry, Louisiana
Age: 38
Estimated birth year: abt 1862
Birthplace: Louisiana
Relationship to head-of-house: Wife
Spouse’s name: William
Race: Black
Occupation: View image
Neighbors: View others on page
Household Members: Name Age
William Lablanc 41
Marrent Lablanc 38
Uless Lablanc 19
William Lablanc 19
Albert Lablanc 12
Marrie Lablanc 9
Robert Lablanc 7
Joseph Lablanc 5
Josephine Lablanc 5
Henry Lablanc 4
Adam Lablanc 3
Ella Lablanc 2

****************************************

1910 United States Federal Census

Name: Eulis Leblance
[Eulis Leblanc]
Age in 1910: 29
Estimated birth year: abt 1881
Birthplace: Louisiana
Relation to Head of House: Head
Father’s Birth Place: Louisiana
Mother’s Birth Place: Louisiana
Spouse’s name: Madlene
Home in 1910: Police Jury Ward 1, St Landry, Louisiana
Marital Status: Married
Race: Mulatto
Gender: Male
Eulis Leblance 29
Madlene Leblance 21
Octavie Leblance 4
Ledia Leblance 2/12

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George Purvis October 7, 2011 at 7:52 am

I am currently building a website dedicated to Blacks who served the Confederacy IN SOME CAPACITY. To date I have just a little over 9,000 names or numbers. I have records including official reports, letters and CSRs. I have information that will prove even though Blacks may have been laborers; they still came under hostile fire and died as a result. I have read of Confederate units that I just cannot find, but are reported to be mostly Negro units. All entries are proven to be employed and maintained by the Confederate government, the same as any soldier. If you have names or can provide documented numbers please let me know.

Please visit “Negros In Gray” at http://negrosingrey.southernheritageadvancementpreservationeducation.com/page.php?2

Negros In Gray is a sub site of Southern Heritage Advancement Preservation and Education.

Thank you,

George Purvis
Website admin

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